Since October 1, a dozen local armed groups have been involved in the resurgence of clashes against the M23 rebellion in the territories of Rutshuru, Nyiragongo and Masisi (North Kivu). These militiamen call themselves “Wazalendo”, a Swahili expression meaning “resistant patriot”. Other sources also mention certain factions of the FDLR as having intervened. Several villages, already reoccupied by the M23 rebels, have come under the occupation of these local armed groups. This is particularly the case in the eastern part of Masisi territory. The M23 blames the FARDC for this resurgence of fighting. However, the Congolese authorities reject this accusation and claim to be scrupulously respecting the ceasefire. How do we analyze this situation?


-Juvénal Munubo Mubi, national deputy-elect for Walikale in North Kivu. He is an executive of the UNC, a member of the Union sacrée de la nation. He is also a member of the National Assembly’s Defense and Security Commission.

-Jaribu Muliwavyo, PhD in Political and Administrative Sciences from the University of Kisangani and Professor at the University of Goma. Teacher, researcher and Senior Consultant in Security Governance. He is a specialist in the Geopolitics of the ADF War. He is also the author of several books on the ADF war.

-Christoph Vogel, research director of the “Insecure Livelihoods” project at Ghent University in Belgium. He is also co-founder of the Ebuteli Research Institute in the DRC. He is also a former member of the United Nations Group of Experts on the DRC.